Lesson 1

1 2 Simple Touch Sensor This circuit is built
with just three components.
Begin by building a very simple circuit,
a touch sensor.

In this circuit,
touching two wire connectors (finger probes)
to a finger lights an LED.
3 Here the stick diagrams for these parts and, of course, the battery. You are familiar
with the first two:
the resistor and the LED.
Meet the transistor --
an electronic switch
with NO moving parts!
Use these SYMBOLS,
to read the
circuit diagram.
This transistor is one of the great inventions of the last century.
It is a key component in practically all modern electronics.

Before going into how transistors work,
let’s explore what happens when you put it into this circuit.
4 To build the touch sensor, you will need: 5 1 2 3 With the flat side of the transistor facing you,
insert its three prongs
into any three adjacent holes
on the breadboard,
along a column, as shown.
Bend down the two resistor leads. Insert one resistor lead
into a hole directly behind the collector (c) side of the transistor.

This connects the resistor
to the transistor’s collector.
Insert the other lead of the
resistor into an adjacent hole in the breadboard. The five holes in
row 50 are wired together inside
the breadboard. This is true of every row.
6 + + The placement of these three components relates
directly to these same components
in the Touch Sensor Circuit Diagram.
4 Now insert the LED
into the breadboard.
The longer positive lead is inserted into the breadboard,
as shown.
NOTE: The positive lead of the LED will be connected to the
positive terminal on the battery.
Be sure to turn OFF the meter
when you are finished.
7 5 6 Insert one end of a red wire
into an empty hole in the same row as the
POSITIVE lead to the LED.

The disconnected end of
this wire will become one
of the finger probes.
Insert one end
of a black wire
into an empty hole
in the same row as
the base (b), the
center prong of the
transistor, as shown.

The disconnected end of the black wire will become the other finger probe.
Touch Sensor Circuit Diagram
Compare your circuit
to this diagram.
8 Interconnections
within the Breadboard.
Top View
the Breadboard.
Power Strip on Breadboard Now you need to connect this circuit to a 9 volt battery.
Note that the breadboard has a “power strip” running lengthwise
along both sides, as shown by the two sets of red and blue lines.
9 CONTINUITY! * Use your multimeter to test
that your zero ohm resisters
act as wires!
Now locate two zero ohm resisters.
You will use these as wires on your breadboard.
10 Use a ZERO ohm resistor to connect the POSITIVE end of the LED to the red power strip marked on the breadboard.
The RED-lined power strip is positive.
Use a ZERO ohm resistor to connect the POSITIVE end of the LED to the red power strip marked on the breadboard.
The RED-lined power strip is positive.
11 Use a ZERO ohm resistor
to connect the transistor’s
emitter (e), the third prong
on the right, to the negative (blue line) power strip
on the breadboard.

REMEMBER: To connect
to the emitter, the zero ohm
resistor has to go into
a hole in the same ROW
as the transistor’s emitter (e).

Use ANY hole along the power strip. The whole column is connected.
Be sure that all leads and connectors
are pushed firmly
into the breadboard.
8 finger probes front view
of transistor
c b e
12 9 Snap the battery clip
onto the 9V battery.
Connect the red and black wires from the clip to the power strip on the breadboard.
The RED wire connects to the
PLUS terminal of the battery.
Connect this red wire to
any hole next to the red bar.

The BLACK wire connects to the MINUS terminal of the battery.
This black wire connects
to any hole along the blue bar.
Be sure that both wires are pushed
firmly into the breadboard.
Always check
your connections,
before you add power!
13 Congratulations!
You made
a touch sensor!
Now touch the open ends
of the two finger probes
to your finger, as shown.

Watch the LED.

Does it light each time
you touch the probes to your finger?

The skin on your finger
acts as a resistor that allows
current to flow in the circuit.
14 You have just built a circuit
that uses a transistor.
What does it do in this circuit?
15 toggle switch push
toggle switch Mechanical
You use wall switches
to turn lights on and off.

You may have used a toggle switch too.

These types of switches
have moving parts.

A transistor is --
an electronic switch
with NO moving parts!
wall switch plate
16 Transistors are often used in digital circuits
as electronic switches which can be either
in an "ON" or an "OFF" state.
Your transistor has three terminals:
collector (c), base (b) and emitter (e).
ONE of your finger probes is connected
to the base (b) of your transistor.
The OTHER finger probe is connected
to the plus terminal of the battery.
In the circuit you just built,
your transistor acted like an “ideal switch.”
When OFF, the circuit is an open circuit.
When ON, it acts as a short circuit or wire.
17 WHEN the finger probes
are NOT touching your finger,
the base is NOT connected
to anything.

NO current or voltage can flow from the battery through your finger into the base (B).

With NO voltage/current going
to the base, NO current will flow from the collector (C)
to the emitter (E). THAT is how the
transistor works.

The circuit is OPEN.
The switch is OFF.
The LED has no power.
It does not light.
You’ll fry your LED! Remember the light dimmer project?
Locate the resistor you used to reduce
the current going into the LED.
Don’t do it!
You’ll fry your LED!
18 What about that
fourth GOLD band?
The fourth band
stands for the
accuracy of
your resistor.
With this understanding of resistor color coding,
you can use the free apps or online decoders
to decode the value of any resistor.
Use this table to decode
the values for these
four band resistors.
resistors cost more,
but may not be needed.
Gold means plus or
minus 5% accuracy.
19 A transistor acts like a switch.
It is not a switch that you press directly with your finger. Instead, the switch works automatically in response to electrical signals.

In your touch sensor, the transistor turns on an LED when the probes touch your finger. That is, the LED is turned on when 0.6 to 0.7 V is applied to the base(B).

Turn the base current in the simulation to see how this works.
Explore Transistors
A Simulation
20 Transistor 21 What is a coulomb
of charge
Does current ADD
in a series circuit
If you connect TWO
1.5 voltbatteries in parallel,
what would be the total voltage
If you combine two 1.5 volt
batteries in series, what would be the total voltage
1 2 3 4 5 How does current behave in a parallel circuit? 3 volts A whole LOT of charges: 6,250,000,000,000,000,000 or
6.25 quintillion electrons or protons!
NO! The current is the same everywhere. At every node in a circuit, the current in equals
the current OUT.
Still 1.5 V. The currents would ADD together,
not the voltages.

Lesson 1
Lesson 2
Lesson 3
Lesson 4


Complies with NGSS:

NGSS 3-5. Engineering Design
3-5-ETS1-1, 3-5-ETS1-2, 3-5-ETS1-3

Core Disciplinary Ideas:
ETS1.A Defining and Delimiting Engineering Problems
ETS1.B Developing Possible Solutions
ETS1.C Optimizing the Design Solution

Engineering Electronics